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¿Qué comer cuando estoy mal del estómago?

Creo que nadie se salva de haber pasado un mal rato luego de comer, sobre todo fuera de casa o algo por ahí que para nuestra mala suerte estuvo contaminado. “Estar mal del estómago” realmente significa tener una enteritis o colitis, que es inflamación del intestino causada, como les dije, por comer o beber cosas contaminadas con bacterias o virus lo cual se traduce en inflamación y dolor de estómago, diarrea, cólicos y hasta a veces fiebre (sin hablar del mal momento que puedes pasar cuando estás fuera de casa, porque esta enteritis no te avisa cuando va a llegar).

Cuando estamos mal del estómago, realmente no sabemos qué comer. En casa nos dicen: no comas verduras, no frutas, nada integral, solo galletas de soda, arroz blanco, tostadas blancas y pollo sancochado. Así que he decidido contarles un poco qué es lo que realmente ocurre en nuestro cuerpo en esta situación y darles alternativas para no aburrirse ni comer mal por “estar mal del estómago”.

Primero, hablemos de la fibra. Porque la fibra no necesariamentetenemos que eliminarla cuando estamos mal del estómago, al contrario, solo hay que saber elegir una buena alternativa. Cuando es absorbida, esta fibra, arrastra también sodio y agua. Esto es muy útil en los casos de diarrea, porque contribuye además al mantenimiento de la función de barrera intestinal. Y, ¿por qué? Porque en esta situación es probable que el médico nos receta antibióticos (anti vida, anti bacterias) entonces al consumirlas, se rompe el equilibrio entre los diferentes tipos de bacterias del intestino causando un descenso de los lactobacilos y bifidobacterias. Estas bacterias son los que protegen de las bacterias malas, que son las que producen infecciones provocando diarrea. Así que consumir fibra fermentable, esencialmente FOS e inulina, juega un papel importante a la hora de controlar este tipo de diarrea.

Por otro lado, a la hora de consumir fibra, la masa de deshecho que eliminaremos por el tracto gastrointestinal aumentara en tamaño y le dará mas firmeza a este “deshecho”.

Entonces, ¿qué debo comer?

  • Alimentos ricos en pectina: Manzanas, plátano, higos frambuesas y duraznos (pero mejor consúmelas en compotas al horno, sin azúcar, eso sí. El plátano sí puede ser fresco). La pectina, una fibra soluble en agua, ayuda a disminuir la diarrea.
  • Alimento ricos en potasio: Plátano, palta, papas pero con cáscara, calabaza y zapallo. Esto porque durante la diarrea se suele perder potasio.
  • Alimentos ricos en sodio: Sopas naturales con sal de maras, algunas bebidas isotónicas, huevos, aceitunas, espinacas, apio y berros. Esto es porque tenemos que tener un equilibrio de sodio y potasio en el cuerpo y durante la diarrea eliminamos también agua, sodio, minerales y de esa manera evitamos la deshidratación.
  • Alimentos ricos en proteínas: Pero libres de grasas o de preparaciones muy condimentadas. Procura consumir huevos, pollo, pavo, tofu. La carne de res puede ser más difícil de digerir y causar más dolor estomacal, así que depende de tu tolerancia. Las proteínas pueden ayudarte a evitar la fatiga y decaimiento que normalmente se tiene en esta situación. 

No dejes de comer frutas y verduras, pero procura comerlas cocidas y no crudas. Puedes hacer compotas sin azúcar, sopas con espárragos, zanahoria, calabaza, champiñones, apio, purés con verduras como tomate o espinaca y papas al horno sin la cáscara.

Procura tomar suficiente agua, pero tibia, no muy fría ni muy caliente.

Evita las bebidas con gas o con cafeína. También evita alimentos muy pesados como los fritos y grasosos (favorecen la diarrea). Los lácteos tampoco los recomiendo en estos casos porque son pro inflamatorios, algunos difíciles de digerir y favorecen la diarrea.

El volumen de la comida no puede ser muy grande, debes de comer pequeñas porciones. Es mas, si puedes dividir tus comidas principales en dos estaría perfecto.

Algo importante es que todo los “venenos blancos” : lácteos, azúcar, harinas refinadas (pan blanco, tostadas, galletas, fideos…) inflaman más la mucosa gástrica y claramente no son saludables, elevan mucho la glucosa en sangre. Te recomiendo no consumirlos así estes enfermo, así te los den en las clínicas cuando estas enfermo. Lamentablemente no es lo correcto.

Menú para cuando estoy mal del estómago:

Desayuno: 

Compota de manzana y quinua con canela.

Huevos pasados.

Medias mañanas y tardes:

Olvídate de las galletas de soda y elige rice cakes con mermelada sin azúcar, panqueques de harina de arroz o de yuca (insulina), yogurt de tofu.

Almuerzos y cenas:

Verduras cocidas o sopa de verduras (de preferencia espinaca, poro, apio, berros, betarraga/remolacha, espárragos). Trata de no ponerle mucho aceite de oliva.

Arroz integral, quinua, papa sin cáscara, polenta, yuca.

Algo de proteína como un filete de pollo o pescado con hierbas como tomillo, orégano, estragón y sal de maras.

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